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Std 10 Science and Technology Part - 1: Important Questions for Board Exam by Target Publications



Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 PDF Download Chapter 1




If you are a student of Std 10 in Maharashtra Board, you must be looking for a reliable and comprehensive study material for your Science subject. One of the best options for you is to download the PDF of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book, which covers the entire syllabus of Science and Technology Part 1 as prescribed by the Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production and Curriculum Research, Pune.


In this article, we will tell you how to download the PDF of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book for Chapter 1, which is Chemical Reactions and Equations. We will also give you a brief summary of the chapter and some important questions that will help you prepare for your board exam.




target publications std 10 science 1 pdf download chapter 1



Introduction




Science is a fascinating subject that helps us understand the natural phenomena around us. It also helps us develop critical thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills. To master Science, you need to have a clear understanding of the concepts, principles, and laws that govern the physical and chemical world.


One of the most important topics in Science is Chemical Reactions and Equations, which is the first chapter of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book. This chapter deals with the changes that occur when substances interact with each other and form new substances with different properties. You will learn about the types of chemical reactions, how to balance chemical equations, and how to identify the effects of chemical reactions.


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What is Chapter 1 about?




Chapter 1 of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book is divided into three sections:


  • Section A: Chemical Reactions and Equations



  • Section B: Types of Chemical Reactions



  • Section C: Effects of Chemical Reactions



In Section A, you will learn about the definition and characteristics of chemical reactions, how to write and balance chemical equations, and how to use symbols and formulae to represent chemical reactions.


In Section B, you will learn about the different types of chemical reactions, such as combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, neutralization, oxidation, reduction, exothermic, and endothermic reactions. You will also learn about some examples and applications of these reactions in everyday life.


In Section C, you will learn about the effects of chemical reactions on matter, energy, and environment. You will learn about how chemical reactions can cause changes in colour, state, temperature, gas evolution, precipitate formation, etc. You will also learn about some important phenomena such as corrosion, rancidity, respiration, photosynthesis, etc., that involve chemical reactions.


Why should you download the PDF?




There are many benefits of downloading the PDF of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book for Chapter 1. Some of them are:


  • You can access the PDF anytime and anywhere on your smartphone, tablet, laptop, or desktop.



  • You can save your time and money by avoiding buying or carrying a hard copy of the book.



  • You can easily zoom in or out, highlight, bookmark, or annotate the PDF as per your convenience.



  • You can print or share the PDF with your friends or teachers for revision or discussion.



  • You can get a high-quality and error-free content that is prepared by expert teachers and follows the latest syllabus and exam pattern.



How to download the PDF?




To download the PDF of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book for Chapter 1, you need to follow these simple steps:


  • Visit the official website of Target Publications at



  • Go to the Books section and select Std 10 from the drop-down menu.



  • Choose Science and Technology Part 1 from the list of subjects.



  • Click on the Download PDF button next to the book title.



  • Enter your name, email, and phone number and click on Submit.



  • You will receive a link to download the PDF in your email inbox.



  • Click on the link and save the PDF file on your device.



Congratulations! You have successfully downloaded the PDF of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book for Chapter 1.


Chapter 1 Summary




In this section, we will give you a brief summary of Chapter 1 of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book. We will highlight the main points and concepts that you need to remember for your exam preparation. You can also refer to the PDF for more details and examples.


Chemical Reactions and Equations




A chemical reaction is a process in which one or more substances (reactants) are converted into one or more new substances (products) with different properties. A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction that shows the reactants, products, and their physical states. A chemical equation must be balanced, which means that the number of atoms of each element must be equal on both sides of the equation. To balance a chemical equation, we can use the following steps:


  • Write the skeleton equation with correct symbols and formulae of reactants and products.



  • Count the number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation.



  • Use coefficients (numbers before symbols or formulae) to balance the atoms of different elements. Start with the element that appears only once on each side.



  • Check if the equation is balanced by counting the atoms again.



  • If necessary, simplify the coefficients by dividing them by a common factor.



Types of Chemical Reactions




There are different types of chemical reactions based on how the reactants and products are arranged. Some of the common types are:


  • Combination reaction: A reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product. For example, C + O2 CO2



  • Decomposition reaction: A reaction in which a single reactant breaks down into two or more simpler products. For example, H2O H2 + O2



  • Displacement reaction: A reaction in which an element displaces another element from its compound. For example, Zn + CuSO4 ZnSO4 + Cu



  • Double displacement reaction: A reaction in which two compounds exchange their ions or radicals to form two new compounds. For example, NaCl + AgNO3 NaNO3 + AgCl



  • Precipitation reaction: A reaction in which an insoluble solid (precipitate) is formed when two aqueous solutions are mixed. For example, BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)



  • Neutralization reaction: A reaction in which an acid and a base react to form salt and water. For example, HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)



  • Oxidation reaction:A reaction in which a substance loses electrons or gains oxygen. For example, Mg(s) + O2(g) MgO(s)



  • Reduction reaction:A reaction in which a substance gains electrons or loses oxygen. For example, CuO(s) + H2(g) Cu(s) + H2O(g)



  • Exothermic reaction:A reaction in which heat is released to the surroundings. For example, CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) + heat



  • Endothermic reaction:A reaction in which heat is absorbed from the surroundings. For example, N2(g) + O2(g) + heat 2NO(g)



Balancing Chemical Equations




To balance a chemical equation, we need to follow some rules and steps. Here are some tips and tricks that can help you balance chemical equations easily:


  • Use a table to keep track of the number of atoms of each element on both sides of the equation.



  • Start with the element that appears only once on each side and has the highest coefficient.



  • Balance the elements that are present in compounds first, and then balance the elements that are present as free atoms.



  • Balance the polyatomic ions as a whole unit, if they are same on both sides.



  • If there are fractions in the coefficients, multiply the whole equation by the lowest common multiple to get rid of them.



  • Check your answer by counting the atoms again and making sure they are equal on both sides.



Effects of Chemical Reactions




Chemical reactions can cause various effects on matter, energy, and environment. Some of the common effects are:


  • Change in colour:Some chemical reactions can result in a change in colour of the reactants or products. For example, when iron rusts, it changes from grey to brown. When copper reacts with nitric acid, it changes from brown to blue-green.



  • Change in state:Some chemical reactions can result in a change in state of the reactants or products. For example, when water freezes, it changes from liquid to solid. When carbon dioxide sublimes, it changes from solid to gas.



  • Change in temperature:Some chemical reactions can result in a change in temperature of the reactants or products. For example, when magnesium burns, it produces a lot of heat. When ammonium nitrate dissolves in water, it absorbs heat.



  • Gas evolution:Some chemical reactions can result in the formation of a gas as a product. For example, when vinegar reacts with baking soda, it produces carbon dioxide gas. When zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid, it produces hydrogen gas.



  • Precipitate formation:Some chemical reactions can result in the formation of an insoluble solid (precipitate) as a product. For example, when silver nitrate reacts with sodium chloride, it produces silver chloride precipitate. When lead nitrate reacts with potassium iodide, it produces lead iodide precipitate.



Chapter 1 Important Questions




In this section, we will provide you with some important questions from Chapter 1 of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book. These questions are based on the latest syllabus and exam pattern and will help you test your understanding and recall of the chapter. You can also refer to the PDF for more questions and answers.


MCQs




Choose the correct option for each question.


A chemical reaction is said to be balanced when


  • (a) The number of atoms of each element is equal on both sides of the equation.



  • (b) The number of molecules of each compound is equal on both sides of the equation.



  • (c) The number of moles of each substance is equal on both sides of the equation.



  • (d) The number of electrons involved is equal on both sides of the equation.



Answer:(a) The number of atoms of each element is equal on both sides of the equation.


A combination reaction is one in which


  • (a) Two or more reactants combine to form a single product.



  • (b) A single reactant breaks down into two or more simpler products.



  • (c) An element displaces another element from its compound.



  • (d) Two compounds exchange their ions or radicals to form two new compounds.



Answer:(a) Two or more reactants combine to form a single product. An oxidation reaction is one in which


  • (a) A substance loses electrons or gains oxygen.



  • (b) A substance gains electrons or loses oxygen.



  • (c) A substance releases heat to the surroundings.



  • (d) A substance absorbs heat from the surroundings.



Answer:(a) A substance loses electrons or gains oxygen.


A precipitation reaction is one in which


  • (a) An insoluble solid (precipitate) is formed when two aqueous solutions are mixed.



  • (b) A gas is evolved when a solid and a liquid are mixed.



  • (c) A colour change occurs when two liquids are mixed.



  • (d) A temperature change occurs when two solids are mixed.



Answer:(a) An insoluble solid (precipitate) is formed when two aqueous solutions are mixed.


A neutralization reaction is one in which


  • (a) An acid and a base react to form salt and water.



  • (b) An acid and a metal react to form salt and hydrogen gas.



  • (c) A base and a non-metal react to form salt and water.



  • (d) An acid and a salt react to form water and another salt.



Answer:(a) An acid and a base react to form salt and water.


Short Answer Questions




Answer the following questions in one or two sentences.


  • What is the difference between a physical change and a chemical change?



Answer:A physical change is a change in the shape, size, state, or appearance of a substance without changing its composition. A chemical change is a change in the composition of a substance that results in the formation of new substances with different properties.


  • What are the symbols used to represent the physical states of reactants and products in a chemical equation?



Answer:The symbols used to represent the physical states of reactants and products in a chemical equation are: (s) for solid, (l) for liquid, (g) for gas, and (aq) for aqueous solution.


  • What is the law of conservation of mass? How does it apply to chemical reactions?



Answer:The law of conservation of mass states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. It implies that the total mass of the reactants must be equal to the total mass of the products in a chemical reaction.


  • What are the indicators of a chemical reaction?



Answer:The indicators of a chemical reaction are: change in colour, change in state, change in temperature, gas evolution, precipitate formation, sound or light emission, etc.


  • What is the difference between oxidation and reduction?



Answer:Oxidation is a process in which a substance loses electrons or gains oxygen. Reduction is a process in which a substance gains electrons or loses oxygen. Long Answer Questions




Answer the following questions in detail.


  • What are the different types of chemical reactions? Give one example of each type with a balanced chemical equation.



Answer:The different types of chemical reactions are:


  • Combination reaction: A reaction in which two or more reactants combine to form a single product. For example, 2H2(g) + O2(g) 2H2O(l)



  • Decomposition reaction: A reaction in which a single reactant breaks down into two or more simpler products. For example, 2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O2(g)



  • Displacement reaction: A reaction in which an element displaces another element from its compound. For example, Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)



  • Double displacement reaction: A reaction in which two compounds exchange their ions or radicals to form two new compounds. For example, Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI(aq) PbI2(s) + 2KNO3(aq)



  • Precipitation reaction: A reaction in which an insoluble solid (precipitate) is formed when two aqueous solutions are mixed. For example, BaCl2(aq) + Na2SO4(aq) BaSO4(s) + 2NaCl(aq)



  • Neutralization reaction: A reaction in which an acid and a base react to form salt and water. For example, HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)



  • Oxidation reaction:A reaction in which a substance loses electrons or gains oxygen. For example, Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)



  • Reduction reaction:A reaction in which a substance gains electrons or loses oxygen. For example, CuO(s) + H2(g) Cu(s) + H2O(g)



  • Exothermic reaction:A reaction in which heat is released to the surroundings. For example, C(s) + O2(g) CO2(g) + heat



  • Endothermic reaction:A reaction in which heat is absorbed from the surroundings. For example, NH4NO3(s) + heat N2O(g) + 2H2O(g)



  • Briefly explain the effects of chemical reactions on matter, energy, and environment with suitable examples.



Answer:The effects of chemical reactions on matter, energy, and environment are:


  • Effect on matter:Chemical reactions can cause changes in the physical and chemical properties of matter. For example, when iron reacts with oxygen, it forms iron oxide, which has a different colour, texture, and reactivity than iron. When water reacts with sodium, it forms sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas, which have different states, solubility, and flammability than water and sodium.



  • Effect on energy:Chemical reactions can involve the transfer of energy between the reactants and products and the surroundings. For example, when methane burns, it releases heat and light energy to the surroundings. When ammonium nitrate dissolves in water, it absorbs heat energy from the surroundings.



  • Effect on environment:Chemical reactions can have positive or negative impacts on the environment. For example, when plants perform photosynthesis, they convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen, which reduces greenhouse gases and provides oxygen for living organisms. When fossil fuels are burned, they produce carbon dioxide and other pollutants, which increase greenhouse gases and cause global warming and acid rain.



  • Write a balanced chemical equation for each of the following word equations and identify the type of reaction involved.



  • Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid Magnesium chloride + Hydrogen



Answer:Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g). This is a displacement reaction.


  • Calcium carbonate Calcium oxide + Carbon dioxide



Answer:CaCO3(s) CaO(s) + CO2(g). This is a decomposition reaction.


  • Sodium hydroxide + Hydrochloric acid Sodium chloride + Water



Answer:NaOH(aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O(l). This is a neutralization reaction.


  • Copper oxide + Hydrogen Copper + Water



Answer:CuO(s) + H2(g) Cu(s) + H2O(g). This is a reduction reaction.


  • Sodium carbonate + Calcium chloride Sodium chloride + Calcium carbonate



Answer:Na2CO3(aq) + CaCl2(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + CaCO3(s). This is a double displacement reaction.


Conclusion




In this article, we have provided you with all the information you need to download the PDF of Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book for Chapter 1, which is Chemical Reactions and Equations. We have also given you a summary of the chapter and some important questions that will help you ace your board exam. We hope you found this article useful and informative.


Key Points




Here are some key points to remember from this article:


  • Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 book is a reliable and comprehensive study material for Maharashtra Board students.



  • Chapter 1 of the book covers the topic of Chemical Reactions and Equations, which deals with the changes that occur when substances interact with each other and form new substances.



  • You can download the PDF of the book for Chapter 1 from the official website of Target Publications by following some simple steps.



  • You can benefit from the PDF in many ways, such as saving time and money, accessing it anytime and anywhere, and getting high-quality and error-free content.



  • You can also refer to the summary and the important questions provided in this article for your revision and practice.



FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions and their answers related to this article:


  • Q: What is the name of the book and the publisher that we are talking about in this article?



  • A: The name of the book is Target Publications Std 10 Science 1 and the publisher is Target Publications Pvt. Ltd. Q: What is the syllabus and exam pattern that the book follows?



  • A: The book follows the syllabus and exam pattern prescribed by the Maharashtra State Bureau of Textbook Production and Curriculum Research, Pune for Std 10 Science and Technology Part 1. Q: How many chapters are there in the book?



A: There are nine chapters in the book, namely:


  • Chapter 1: Chemical Reactions and Equations



  • Chapter 2: Acids, Bases and Salts



  • Chapter 3: Metals and Non-metals



  • Chapter 4: Carbon Compounds



  • Chapter 5: Periodic Classification of Elements



  • Chapter 6: Life Processes



  • Chapter 7: Control and Coordination



  • Chapter 8: Reproduction in Organisms



  • Chapter 9: Heredity and Evolution



  • Q: How can I get the PDF of other chapters of the book?



  • A: You can get the PDF of other chapters of the book by following the same steps as mentioned in this article for Chapter 1. You just need to select the chapter number from the drop-down menu on the website. Q: Where can I get more information and resources for Std 10 Science?



A: You can get more information and resources for Std 10 Science from various sources, such as:


  • The official website of Maharashtra State Board at



  • The official website of Target Publications at



  • The official YouTube channel of Target Publications at



  • The official blog of Target Publications at



  • The official app of Target Publications at



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